Small Reef Aquarium Basics Book
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SMALL REEF AQUARIUM BASICS

Albert J. Thiel

Table of Contents

Introduction SRAB-1
Filtration 1
General Remarks 1
Mechanical Filtration 1
Canisters - traditional 1
Canisters - special 1
Diatomaceous Earth filters 1
Sand and Gravel Filters 1
Micron and Sub-micron filters 1
Miscellaneous 1
Mechanical filter in syphon 1
Conclusion on mechanical filtration 1
Biological Filtration SRAB-2
General Remarks 2
General principles of trickle filtration 2
Components of a good trickle filter 2
Sizing the trickle filter 2
Media considerations 2
Drip plate or spray bar 2
Making your own drip plate 2
Retrofitting for a slanted bottom 2
Adding Compartments to the sump 2
Making your own add-on compartments 2
Fittings on the trickle filter 2
Float Switches 2
Hard pipe or flexible hose 2
Fittings other than on the trickle filter SRAB-3
Adding Canister filters 3
Flow rates through filters and through the tank 3
Water returns, with or without holes in bottom 3
Corner Overflow, or syphon surface skimmers 3
Drip systems as part of the trickle filter 3
Improving the efficiency of your existing trickle filter 3
In-line cartridge filters 3
Automatic float switches 3
Converting from an undergravel to a reef system 3
Maintaining the undergravel 3
Removing the undergravel 3
Remarks on the conversion process 3
Chemical Filtration 3
General Remarks SRAB-4
Activated carbon 4
De-ionizing resins 4
General remarks on resins 4
Molecular absorption filters 4
Additional remarks on the use of activated carbon 4
Review of Filtration requirements discussed SRAB-5
Protein Skimmers - Foam fractionators 5
Checklist for sizing a protein skimmer 5
Skimmer efficiency 5
Air - water contact time 5
Size of air bubbles 5
Shape of the skimmer 5
Salinity of the water 5
Water level in the skimmer 5
Water additives used 5
Optimum water flow 5
Venturi Power skimmers 5
Conversion Units - Hang-on Units 5
Water Sources, Uses and Treatment SRAB-6
Introduction 6
Water Sources 6
Water uses 6
Water changes 6
How to change water (manual and automatic) 6
Treating the water before it is used 6
Mechanically 121 Sand and similar filters 6
Activated carbon as a pre-filter 6
Molecular absorption as a pre-filter 6
Reverse osmosis as a pre-filtration method 6
De-ionization as a pre-filtration method 6
Ultra-violet sterilization 6
Ozonization 132 Chemical Additives 6
Cold sterilization 6
Suggested pre-filtration set-up with diagram 6
Water Additives and Salt SRAB-7
Reef aquarium salt 7
Trace Elements 7
Vitamins 7
Special Additives 7
Conclusion on additives 7
Lighting for the Reef Tank 7
Introduction 7
Metal Halide lights and corals 7
Fluorescent lighting 7
Changing lighting 7
Maintenance and Husbandry SRAB-8
Cleaning 8
Water changes and Level Adjustments 8
Water Quality management 8
Tests 8
Recommended water quality parameters 8
Additives 8
Visual Inspection 8
Taking corrective action 8
Feeding 8
Adding more Lifeforms 8
Miscellaneous short Topics 8
Heating and cooling 8
Cycling the tank 8
Intrumentation 8
Equipment such as Reactors 8
Conclusion 8
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